Ian Budge is Emeritus Professor in the Department of Government at the University of Essex. He has made major contributions both to cumulative research on democracy and to organisational developments in the discipline. His earliest research on Glasgow and Belfast focused on causes of democratic breakdown. After a period of studying elections, voting behaviour, and party competition, he turned to public policy and how it might become responsive to popular preferences - a central democratic dilemma. His research covers direct and representative democracy.
Professor Budge founded the Essex Summer School in Social Science Data Analysis in 1968, and he was Executive Director of the European Consortium for Political Research, based at the University of Essex, between 1979 and 1983. Among his recent publications are, (with Klingemann et al), Mapping Policy Preferences: Estimates for Parties, Electorates and Governments 1945–1998 (2001), Elections, Parties, Democracy: Conferring the Median Mandate (with Michael D McDonald) (2005); The New British Politics (Ian Budge, David McKay, Kenneth Newton and John Bartle) (2007).