Philippe Van Parijs holds doctorates in philosophy (Oxford) and the social sciences (Louvain). He is professor at the Université of Louvain, where he has directed the Hoover Chair of Economic and Social Ethics since its creation in 1991. He has been a regular visiting professor at Harvard University and at the University of Leuven, and has held visiting positions at many other institutions around the world. His books include Evolutionary Explanation in the Social Sciences (1981), Marxism Recycled (1993), Real Freedom for All (1995), What's Wrong with a Free Lunch? (2000) and Linguistic Justice for Europe and for the World (2011).